Download PDF Performance Based Building Design 1: From Below Grade Construction to Cavity Walls, Second Edition

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  1. Introduction
  2. Slab Section Detail Dwg
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  4. The PH+ guide to insulating foundations

NO YES. Selected type: E-Book. Added to Your Shopping Cart. View on Wiley Online Library. This is a dummy description. Just like building physics, performance based building design was hardly an issue before the energy crises of the s. With the need to upgrade energy efficiency, the interest in overall building performance grew. The term "performance" encompasses all building-related physical properties and qualities that are predictable during the design stage and controllable during and after construction. Jonathon Barnett of Isoquick insists that, structurally, a raft is very different to a ring beam with a connected floor slab.

This concentrates the load on a narrow strip of insulation, limiting the amount of load that can be carried. He says that a ring beam design is essentially a strip footing with a reinforced beam, which by extension means the ground underneath the beam would have to be prepared to the same depth as a strip footing, although Kore and Kingspan say there is less need to excavate with their systems.

A genuine raft design also works better thermally, too, he says, not least because the level of insulation under the edge of the slab remains consistent. Ring beam designs require the concrete slab to be thickened at the edges, meaning that the insulation has to be reduced compared to the middle of the building.

Arguments about thermal performance aside, perhaps the choice among architects depends more on the versatility of all these systems in terms of accommodating the various different types of structure, but for others the appeal of a flat raft system may well be its inherent simplicity in terms of ensuring optimal thermal performance. Another factor, of course, is cost. Insulated foundation systems may cost more materially, but one argument is that they require far less soil or ground excavation than traditional foundations, including the need to dig up trenches, which in turn speeds up construction and cuts down the risk of health and safety issues.

Once the stone is in place your site is out of the mud making life easier for everyone working on the job. From an empty site to a finished floor is usually less than two weeks. We win contracts simply on the muck away savings alone. Structural engineer Hilliard Tanner is also of the view that overall, the costs even out between insulated and non-insulated systems. There is also the reduction in concrete use with insulated foundations.

Furthermore, there is an element of pre-fabrication with such systems in that you are more likely to see the exact specifications of the foundation upfront, including the amount of insulation and concrete used. This can minimise the likelihood of mistakes and material wastage on site. In the case of very poor ground conditions, e. In any case the system needs to be designed by a suitably qualified engineer based on the ground conditions and superstructure. While a common refrain among raft foundation advocates is that strip foundations can lead to thermal compromise when compared to insulated foundation systems, Passive House Plus has featured plenty of projects over the years, of various construction types, that have achieved the passive house standard with a traditional strip foundation.

The key is good detailing. This can mean wall insulation that continues down below ground level, reaching down below the floor insulation, and ensuring a sufficient overlap of thermal insulation between the wall insulation and underfloor insulation. Given that ground temperatures below certain depths remain relatively warm compared to external conditions, the absence of insulation beneath the blockwork separating the wall insulation and floor insulation may be a non-issue — if the insulation layer is brought down below the floor insulation level.


For instance, leading Irish insulation manufacturer Xtratherm recommend the wall insulation layer being brought down to a depth of mm below the floor insulation layer. Foundation at an A1-rated social housing project by Linham Construction in Dublin, showing 1 Geocell foam glass gravel and aggregate under the concrete slab; 2 followed above by a radon barrier and; 3 mm reinforced concrete with a power float finish.

If there is insulation on the room side of the wall build-up — for example on the inside of a timber frame —thermal bridging at this junction can be minimalised by, for example, installing an upstand of insulation around the edges of the floor slab that join with the room-side insulation as per the ACDs Acceptable Construction Details. Equally, a common detail for masonry projects is to have a low thermal conductivity block at the base of the inner leaf of masonry, where the wall meets the underfloor insulation, to minimise heat loss through this junction.

Magennis said that the resultant Psi values from well-detailed insulated strip footings are generally comparable to insulated foundation systems. Such pipes shall discharge only upward or angled upward in order to disburse vapors. Vent pipes 2 inches 51 mm or less nominal inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building openings or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions.

Vent pipes shall be provided with vacuum and pressure relief devices as required in NFiPA 30, or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent line at the outlet. Protected storage in building or in portions of such building cut off by approved fire walls shall be in accordance with Table B of this Code and unprotected storage in buildings or in portions of such building cut off by approved fire walls shall be in accordance with subparagraph Materials creating non-fire exposure hazard to the flammable or combustible liquids may be stored in the same area.

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Unprotected Storage shall be in accordance with subparagraph Exception: In buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system s , the capacity of the smoke removal system s shall provide three air changes per hour cph based on the gross building volume when empty. In buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system s , exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced no more than feet apart in one direction only. No spacing limitation is required in the other direction. The fire department smoke removal control panel shall be in an approved location and shall be clearly identified.

The control panel room shall be protected by not less than 1-hour fire rated construction or shall be located at an approved location in the exterior of the building. The control room shall be accessible from the exterior of the building. For fire fighting purposes, there shall be at least one access door in each linear feet In exterior walls designed with continuous rolling dock doors which face access roadways, there shall be at least one access door in each linear feet or fraction thereof.

Required access doors shall be a minimum of 3 feet mm wide and 6 feet 8 inches 2. Rolling doors are acceptable for such purposes in buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system s unless otherwise approved for unsprinklered building by the fire official.

In buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic ESFR sprinkler system s , neither smoke nor heat venting nor mechanical smoke removal systems are required. Whenever the roof has a slope or greater, a level working platform not less than 30 inches mm deep shall be provided in front of the entire firebox and control sides of the appliance.

All sides of any working platform facing any portion of the roof edge below the platform shall be protected by substantial railing 42 inches mm high with vertical rails not more than 21 inches mm apart, except that parapets at least 24 inches mm high may be utilized in lieu of rails or guards. Required working platforms and railings may be omitted when access to the equipment is through a required roof scuttle and all of the following provisions are met:. The required scuttle is located immediately adjacent to the control side of the equipment unit.

All controls, filters, burners, fans and motors are accessible for service and repair within 2 ft mm of the edge of the equipment platform on the scuttle side. The equipment platform is not more than 20 inches mm above the high side of the scuttle opening. A substantial working platform not less than 30 inches mm by 30 inches mm shall be provided directly below the scuttle at a point not less than 30 inches mm or more than 32 inches mm below the high side of the scuttle opening.

Scuttles located on other than the roof incline side of the equipment unit shall have their lids or trap doors hinged on the low side of the scuttle. A volt, single phase, 15 or 20 ampere-rated receptacle outlet shall be installed at a readily accessible location for the servicing of heating, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment.

The disconnecting means for heating, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment shall in no case be installed farther than 6 ft mm from the service side of the equipment. Combustible material shall not be used in plenums unless it is properly protected or meets all standards of Class I Duct Material as defined by UL Thermal and acoustical materials complying with the requirements of Single and multiconductor low voltage and power limited electrical wire and cables tested in accordance with UL and having a peak optical density not greater than 0.

Wiring meeting these requirements shall be listed and labeled as plenum cable. Raceway for fiber optic cable tested in accordance with UL and listed for use in spaces over suspended ceilings, plenums, ducts and other spaces for environmental air handling, shall be permitted provided that the raceway has a peak optical density not greater than 0. Optical fiber raceway shall be specifically marked for such use and shall be permitted only with plenum rated nonconductive type OFNP cable.

All heating and air conditioning systems of the central type shall be provided with approved type air filters. Filters shall be installed in the return air, upstream from any heat exchanger or coil, in an approved convenient location, and shall be easily accessible for cleaning or replacement.

Filters shall be of a type that will not burn freely or emit large volumes of smoke or other objectionable products of combustion when attacked by flames. Exception: Fan powered induction units, induction units and heating fans using integral electric heater or electric duct heating coils which are located above ceilings or in return air ceiling plenums may omit filters, provided they are conveying previously filtered air from a central type air conditioning unit which also serves the occupied space.

Where appliances are installed in confined space, and all air for combustion and ventilation is obtained from outdoors, the confined space shall be provided with one or two openings, in compliance with the provisions of The openings shall communicate directly, or by ducts, with outdoors or spaces crawl or attic that freely communicate with the outdoors, subject to the following:. When directly communicating with the outdoors, each opening shall have a minimum free area of 1 sq.

When communicating with the outdoors through horizontal ducts, each opening shall have a minimum free area of 1 sq. The minimum dimension of rectangular air ducts shall be not less than 3 inches 76 mm. In calculating free area, consideration shall be given to the blocking effect of louvers, grilles or screens protecting openings. This shall not prevent installation of a separate flue liner in the remaining space if installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and this code.

Chimneys located entirely outside the exterior walls of the building, including chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall have a minimum air space clearance of 1 inch 25 mm. The air space shall not be filled, except to provide firestopping in accordance with Exception: Air space clearance shall not be required where the masonry chimney is equipped with a chimney lining system listed for use in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL , and the lining system is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Noncombustible firestopping shall be provided in accordance with The connector accessory shall be installed according to its listing and manufacturer's instructions. The connector has a diameter no larger than 10 inches mm. Insulation material used as a part of a wall pass through shall be noncombustible and shall have a thermal conductivity of 1. Connectors for all systems, except System B, shall extend through the wall pass through system to the inner face of the liner, and. Closure and Accessibility.

A noncombustible seal shall be provided below the point of connection to prevent entry of room air into the flue. Means shall be provided for access to the flue for inspection and cleaning. Connection to Factory-Built Fireplace Flue. A different appliance shall not be connected to a flue serving a factory-built fireplace unless the appliance is specifically listed for such installation. The connection shall be made in conformance with the appliance manufacturer's instructions.

Connection to Masonry Fireplace Flue. A connector shall extend from the appliance to the flue serving a masonry fireplace such that the flue gases are exhausted directly into the flue. The connector shall be accessible or removable for inspection and cleaning of both the connector and the flue. Listed direct connection devices shall be installed according to their listing. Water closets, flushometer tank or close coupled 2-piece gravity-flush type 1.

If the building has an overhang the 10'-0" clearance shall be measured from a point below the edge of the overhang only if the building is 3 stories or less. If the building is 4 stories or nor, 10'-0" shall be measured from the outside building wall. Fire escapes, outside stairs, and covered walkways attached to or between buildings shall be considered as a part of the building. In no case shall the transformer location be less than 3'-0" from the building. When buildings are modified, reductions in space separations may be less than the above required minimum clearances upon written approval of the authority having jurisdiction.

The provisions of Sections through shall apply only to buildings that were constructed or approved for construction on or after April 1, but prior to March 1, The provision of Section through apply to the installations, operation and maintenance of circuits, systems and equipment intended to supply illumination and power in the event of failure of the normal supply or in the event of accident to elements of a system supplying power and illumination essential for safety to life and property where such systems or circuits are legally required by Municipal, state, Federal or other codes or by a governmental agency having jurisdiction.

Other Requirements. All requirements of the National Electrical Code shall apply to emergency systems except as modified by sections though see section Equipment Approval. All equipment shall be approved for use on emergency systems see section Conduct Test or Witness Test. The authority having jurisdiction shall conduct or witness a test ton the completed system upon instillation and periodically afterwards. Test Periodically.

Systems shall be tested periodically on a schedule acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction to assure their maintenance in proper operating condition. Battery systems Maintenance. Where battery systems or unit equipments are involved, including batteries used for stating, control, or ignition in auxiliary engines or prime movers, the authority having jurisdiction shall require periodic maintenance. Written Record. A written record shall be kept of such tests and maintenance see section Emergency systems shall have adequate capacity and rating for the emergency operation of all equipment connected to the system see section Current supply shall be such that in the event of failure of the normal supply to or within the building or group of buildings concerned, emergency lighting or emergency power or both emergency lighting and power, will be immediately available.

The supply system for emergency purposes may comprise one or more of the types of systems covered in Section to section Unit equipment in accordance with section shall satisfy the applicable requirements of section through Consideration must be given to the type of service to be rendered, whether of short time duration, as for exit lights of a theater, or of long duration as for supplying emergency power and lighting due to a long period of current failure from trouble either inside or outside the buildings, as in the case of a hospital or nursing home.

Assignment of degree of reliability of the recognized emergency supply system depends upon the careful evaluation of the variables at each particular installation see section Storage Battery. Batteries, whether of the acid or alkali type, shall be designed and constructed to meet the requirements of emergency service.

When of the lead-acid type, this shall include low gravity acid 1. Generator Set. One service, in accordance with Article , and a generator set driven by some form of prime mover and of sufficient capacity and proper rating to supply circuits carrying emergency lighting or lighting and power, with suitable means of automatically starting the prime mover on failure of the normal service.

For hospitals or nursing homes, the transition time from instant of failure of the normal power source to the emergency generator source shall no exceed ten 10 seconds see section and section Separate Service. Two services, each in accordance with Article , widely separated electrically and physically to minimize possibility of simultaneous interruption of supply see section Connection Ahead of Service Disconnection Means.

Connections on the line side of the maid service if sufficiently separated from main service to prevent simultaneous interruption of supply through an occurrence within he building or group of buildings served see section Auxiliary Source. The requirements of section and section shall also apply to installation where the entire electrical load on a service or sub-service is arranged to be supplied from a second source.

Current supply from a standby power plant shall satisfy the requirements of availability in section see section Derangement Signals. Audible and visual devices shall be provided where practicable for the following purposes see section :. Loads on Emergency Branch Circuits. No appliances and no lamps, other than those specified as required for emergency use, shall be supplied by emergency lighting circuits see section Emergency Illumination.

Emergency illumination shall include all required exit lights and all other lights specified as necessary to provide sufficient illumination see section Emergency lighting systems should be so designated and installed that the failure of any individual lighting element, such as the burning out of a light bulb, cannot leave any space in total darkness 9see section Circuits for Emergency Lighting.

Branch circuits intended to supply emergency lighting shall be so installed as to provide service immediately when the normal supply for lighting is interrupted. Such installations shall provide either one of the following see section :. An emergency lighting supply, independent of the general lighting system, with provisions for automatically transferring, by means of devices approved for the purpose, the emergency lights upon the event of failure of the general lighting system supply.

Two or more separate and complete systems with independent power supply, each system providing sufficient current for emergency lighting purposes. Unless both systems are used for regular lighting purposes and are both kept lighted, means shall be provided for automatically energizing either system upon failure of the other. Either or both systems may be part of the general lighting system of the protected occupancy of circuits supplying lights for emergency illumination are installed in accordance with other sections of this article.

Slab Section Detail Dwg

Circuits for Emergency Power. For branch circuits which supply equipment classed as emergency, there shall be an emergency supply source to which the load will be transferred automatically and immediately upon the failure of the normal supply see section Independent wiring.

Emergency circuit wiring shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and shall not enter the same raceway, box, or cabinet with other wiring except see section :. Controls for Existing Buildings. Switch Requirements. The switch or switches installed in emergency lighting circuits shall be so arranged that only authorized persons will have control of emergency lighting except see section :.

All manual switches for controlling emergency circuits shall be in locations convenient to authorized persons responsible for their actuation. In places of assembly such as theaters, a switch for controlling emergency lighting systems shall be located in the lobby or at a place conveniently accessible thereto see section In no case shall a control switch for emergency lighting in a theater or notion picture theater be placed in a motion picture projection booth of on a stage, except that where multiple switches are provided, one such switch may be installed in such location when so arranged that it can energize, but not disconnect, the circuit see section Exterior Lights.

Those lights on the exterior of the building which are not required for illumination when there is sufficient daylight may be controlled by an automatic light-actuated device approved for the purpose see section Existing Building Corridors. Switching arrangements to transfer corridor lighting in patient areas of health care occupancies from overhead fixtures to fixtures designed to provide night lighting may be permitted, provided the switching system is so designed that switches can only select between two sets of fixtures and cannot extinguish both sets at the same time see section The branch-circuit Over current devices in emergency circuits shall be accessible to authorized persons only see section Unit Equipment.

Where permitted by the authority having jurisdiction, in lieu of other methods specified elsewhere in this Article, individual unit equipment for emergency illumination shall consist of a a battery, b battery charging means when a storage battery is used, c one or more lamps, and d a relaying device arranged to energize the lamps automatically upon failure of the normal supply to the building.

Storage batteries whether if the acid or alkali type shall be designed and constructed to meet the requirement of emergency service. When of the lead-acid type, the storage battery shall have a transparent jar see section Unit equipment shall be permanently fixed in place i. They shall not be connected by flexible cord. The supply circuit between the unit equipment and the service, feeders, or the branch circuit wiring shall be installed as required by Section Emergency illumination fixtures which obtain power from a unit equipment and are not part of the unit equipment shall be wired to the unit equipment as required by section and by one of the wiring methods of Chapter 3 see section The State's minimum requirements for means of egress from mezzanines shall be established by the Life Safety Code.

Areas not specifically addressed by the Life Safety Code and which are addressed by the Standard Building Code, the Standard Building Code shall be used as a supplement. Except for load combinations which include seismic, load factors for ultimate strength of concrete, LRFD of wood and plastic design or LRFD of steel shall be indicated in the appropriate design standards referenced in this code.

Remainder of section unchanged. Where an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is provided. Fills which support footings, shall be designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Minimum sizes for concrete or masonry footings and anchor bolt placement shall be set forth in Table Footing for wood foundations shall be in accordance with the details set forth in Section Hot water supply systems in buildings, where the developed length of hot water piping from the source to the farthest fixture exceeds feet, shall maintain heated water temperature in all supply piping to within 40 feet of any heated water outlet.

No Building sewer can be less than 4 inches in size with the exception of a branch, not less than 2 inches in size, serving a detached garage, accessory building or forced lines. Backwater valves shall be installed in the branch of the building drain, which receives only the discharge from fixtures located within the such branch on the same floor, and shall be located below grade.

Where fixtures are located below the level of the top of the first upstream manhole, such fixtures shall be protected by a backwater valve. Backwater valves shall have all bearing parts of corrosion resistant material. Backwater valves, when fully open, shall have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are installed. Refer to Section The following Georgia Amendments to the Edition of the National Electrical Code are adopted in conjunction thereto:.

At least one wall switch-controlled lighting outlet "to provide illumination" shall be installed in every habitable room and bedroom. If a light fixture is installed in such spaces it shall meet the requirement of Section a. Include the largest of the following five selections load in kVA.

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Systems qualifying under this selection shall not be calculated under any other selection in c. The bonding jumper shall be sized in accordance with Table using the rating of the circuit that may energize the piping. The equipment grounding conductor for the circuit that may energize the piping shall be permitted to serve as the bonding means.

Armored cable without the bonding strip inside the armor of the cable shall be limited for use only in existing installations and limited to six feet in any ground return path or be protected by GFCI or by AFCI when the cable exceeds six feet in length. FPN: Armored cable without the bonding strip has a high impedance ground return path in lengths exceeding six feet and constitutes a fire or shock hazard due to ground faults.

Overcurrent protection shall be provided in accordance with Sections through Residential occupancies shall be ground-fault protected when provided for solidly grounded wye busways of more than volt to ground, but not exceeding volts phase-to-phase for each overcurrent device rated amperes or more. Exception to b : For existing buildings where records indicate the systems have been adequately maintained. Wet Locations a receptacle installed in a wet location shall be in a weatherproof enclosure, the integrity of which is not affected when the attachment plug cap is inserted or removed.

Example No. Appendices are not enforceable unless they are specifically referenced in the body of the code or adopted for enforcement in the ordinance of the authority having jurisdiction. The Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings shall be used for efficiency and coefficient or performance rating of equipment. Chapter 1 to remain in Code as a guide for local governments in development of their own Administrative Procedures.

Effective January 1, Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of all structures shall be designed and installed for efficient utilization of energy in accordance with the Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings. Appliances shall not be installed in a location where subject to physical damage unless protected by approved barriers. Equipment and appliances having an ignition source shall be elevated such that the source of ignition is not less than 18 inches mm above the floor in hazardous locations and public garages, private garages, repair garages, automotive service stations and parking garages.

Such equipment and appliances shall not be installed in Use Group H occupancies or control areas where open use, handling or dispensing of combustible, flammable or explosive materials occur. For the purpose of this section, rooms or spaces that are not part of the living space of a dwelling unit and that communicate directly with a private garage through openings shall be considered to be part of the private garage. Appliances installed in an enclosure communicating directly with a garage in which all combustion air is taken from the outdoors and the enclosure is equipped with a solid weather-stripped door and self-closing device.

Exception: If an approved condensate pump is used, the condensate line must be sized according to the manufacturer's instructions. Metallic pipe or tubing exposed to corrosive action such as soil condition or moisture shall be protected in an approved manner. Ferrous metal exposed in exterior locations shall be protected from corrosion. When dissimilar metals are joined underground, an insulating coupling or fitting shall be used. Piping shall not be laid in contact with cinders. Where a sediment trap is not incorporated as a part of the gas utilization equipment, a sediment trap shall be installed as close to the inlet of the equipment as practical.

The sediment trap shall be either a tee fitting with a minimum 3" 76 mm long capped nipple in the bottom outlet or other configuration approved as an effective sediment trap. Exception: Illuminating appliances, ranges, clothes dryers, decorative appliances for installation in vented fireplaces, decorative vented appliances and outdoor grills need not be so equipped unless required by manufacturer's installation instructions. Exception: Equipment shutoff valves required by the code shall be permitted to be installed in accessible above ceiling spaces containing vented gas utilization equipment.

Under Georgia law, the Rules and Regulations of the Georgia Safety Fire Commissioner's Office govern the storage, delivery and dispensing of compressed natural gas. Unvented room heaters utilizing fuels other than gas shall be regulated by the Georgia State Minimum Standard Mechanical Code. The Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings shall be used for efficiency and coefficient of performance rating of mechanical equipment.

A refrigerating system in which refrigerant is pressurized by pumping a chemical solution of refrigerant in absorbent, and then separated by the addition of heat in a generator, condensed to reject heat , expanded, evaporated to provide refrigeration , and reabsorbed in an absorber to repeat the cycle; the system may be single or multiple effect, the latter using multiple stages or internally cascaded use of heat to improve efficiency.

Air compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are connected and which forms part of an air distribution system. Change the last sentence of the paragraph to read in accordance with the "Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings". Exception 4. Fuel-fired furnaces and boilers installed in closets and alcoves shall be listed for such installation. Equipment and appliances installed at grade level shall be supported on a level concrete slab or other approved material extending above adjoining grade "a minimum of 2 inches 76 mm " or shall be suspended a minimum of 6" mm above adjoining grade.

Guards shall be provided where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that require service are located within "6 feet mm " of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches mm above the floor, roof or grade below. And delete the word "International" in the last sentence. In the second sentence of the first paragraph delete the following: "and not more than 20 feet. Revise the last sentence of the section paragraph to read as follows: or an approved equivalent using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3 of the "Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings.

Exhaust ducts for domestic range hoods shall be vented to the outside and shall be constructed of Type B label vent or smooth wall duct constructed of minimum 0. Delete the first sentence: "A plenum is an enclosed portion of the building structure that is designed to allow air movement, and thereby serve as part of an air distribution system.

Exception: Ducts installed within "residential" units shall have a minimum thickness as specified in Table Revise the Section title to read "Supply" air in lieu of "Return" air systems.

The PH+ guide to insulating foundations

And, revise the first sentence to read as follows: Smoke detectors shall be installed in the "supply" air systems, with a design capacity greater than 2, cfm 0. Also, delete the end of the sentence from "in the return air duct or plenum upstream of any filters, exhaust air connections, outdoor air connections, or decontamination equipment and appliances. Add a new sentence at the end of the section to read: "In lieu of the low water cut-off control, a flow switch or other mechanism as recommended by manufacturer shall be allowed for water tube boilers.

Remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall be provided as required by "ASHRAE Standard 15". Refrigeration units and systems shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts, and labels in accordance with "ASHRAE Standard 15".

Revise the first sentence of the paragraph to read: Pipe insulation installed in buildings shall conform to the requirements of the "Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings", shall be tested in the composite form in accordance with ASTM E 84 and shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a smoke-developed index not exceeding Hydronic piping shall be insulated to the thickness required by "the Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings".

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Add a new sentence at end of the paragraph to read: "Branch piping for steam mains shall be taken off at the top of the pipe. Drains in solar systems where high temperature, high pressure, or hazardous fluids are discharged shall have a warning label. For hazardous fluids, the label shall describe the hazardous properties of the fluid and emergency first aid procedures. Valves regulating such a discharge shall not be readily accessible to unauthorized personnel. The Georgia State Energy Code for Buildings shall be used for efficiency and coefficient of ratings of plumbing equipment.

A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack, stack vent or terminating in the open air. Plumbing systems, including fixtures, shall be maintained in sanitary condition and proper working order. Materials, equipment, and devices shall not be reused unless such elements have been reconditioned, tested, placed in good and proper working condition, and approved. All excavations required to be made for the installation of a building sewer, building drainage system, or any part thereof within the walls of a building shall be open trench work and shall be kept open until the piping has been inspected, tested and approved.

Upon completion of a section of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion completed, shall be tested and proved tight under a water pressure test not less than the working pressure of the system, but not to exceed manufacturer's specified test pressures for materials used. The water utilized for tests shall be from a potable source of supply. The required tests shall be performed in accordance with this section. Effective January 1, Water Heaters installed in residential occupancies shall be sized in accordance with Table Other methods used to heat water shall be sized to meet the total draw and recovery rates as listed in Table Water service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet mm of undisturbed or compacted earth.

EXCEPTION: The required separation distance shall not apply when the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 feet mm of the building sewer is a minimum of 12 inches mm above the top of the building sewer and the pipe materials conform to Section All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to NSF 61 shall be applied. The joining of water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solders and fluxes. Each individual fixture shall have an accessible shutoff valve at each outlet which will permit each fixture to be shut off without interfering with the water supply to any other fixtures.

Shutoff valves for each fixture supplied by a manifold distribution system may be located at the manifold or at the outlet of the fixture being supplied. The hose bibb or hose connection shutoff valve shall be the only shutoff valve required on washing machine connectors. Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other device is installed on a water supply system utilizing storage water heating equipment such that thermal expansion causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pressure shall be installed.

A potable water expansion tank, or auxiliary relief valve or other approved device that limits pressure to 80 psi or less shall be acceptable. It shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. New or repaired potable water systems shall be flushed and purged of deleterious matter. The authority having jurisdiction may require disinfection in accordance with a prescribed method.

Remainder of section left unchanged Effective January 1, Every building in which plumbing fixtures are installed and every premises having drainage piping shall be connected to a public sewer, where available, or an approved private sewage disposal system. Where a building sewer or building drain is installed on unstable fill or unstable ground, the drainage pipe shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, cast-iron pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, or PVC plastic listed in Table Fittings shall be installed to guide sewage and waste in the direction of the flow.

Change in the direction shall be made by fittings installed in accordance with Table Change in direction by combination fittings, side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of back-to-back fixtures or appliances with pressure or pumping action discharge. Water closets shall not be combined with fixtures other than water closets on a double drainage fitting.

Each horizontal drainage pipe shall be provided with a cleanout at the upstream end of the pipe, and shall be provided with cleanouts located not more than feet mm apart. Test tees or cleanouts in a vertical pipe above the flood-level rim of the fixtures that the horizontal pipe serves and not more than 4 feet above the finish floor. Cleanout near the junction of the building drain and the building sewer which may be rodded both ways. Cleanouts shall be the same nominal size as the pipe they are connected to up to 4 inches mm. For pipes larger than 4 inches mm nominal size, the minimum size of the cleanout shall be 4 inches mm.

All open vent pipes that extend through a roof shall terminate at least 6 inches mm above the roof, except that where a roof is to be used for any purpose other than weather protection, the vent extensions shall be run at least 7 feet mm above the roof. These provisions are applicable only when specifically adopted by the local jurisdiction. The waste stack shall be vertical.

Every fixture drain shall connect separately to the waste stack. The stack shall not receive the discharge of water closets or urinals. The circuit vent connection shall be located between the two most upstream fixture drains. The vent shall connect to the horizontal branch and shall be installed in accordance with Section